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gender equity in academic medicine literature & Reports


  1. AAMC Exploring Salary Equity Among Medical School Leadership, November 2022

  2. AAMC 2018-2019 The State of Women in Academic Medicine: Exploring Pathways to Equity

  3. Group on Women in Medicine and Science (GWIMS) Toolkit 

  4. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Promising Practices for Addressing the Underrepresentation of Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Opening Doors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

  5. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Sexual Harassment of Women: Climate, Culture, and Consequences in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi:

  6. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. The Impact of COVID-19 on the Careers of Women in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.


  1. Jagsi R, Griffith KA, Stewart A, Sambuco D, DeCastro R, Ubel PA. Gender differences in the salaries of physician researchers. JAMA. 2012;307(22):2410-2417.

  2. Jagsi R, Griffith KA, Stewart A, Sambuco D, DeCastro R, Ubel PA. Gender differences in salary in a recent cohort of early-career physician-researchers. Acad Med. 2013:88(11):1689-1699.

  3. Seabury SA, Chandra A, Jena AB. Trends in the earnings of male and female health care professionals in the United States, 1987-2010. JAMA Intern Med. 2013:173(18):1748-1750.

  4. Magua, W., Zhu, X., Bhattacharya, A., Filut, A., Potvien, A., Leatherberry, R., Lee, Y.G., Jens, M., Malikireddy, D., Carnes, M. and Kaatz, A., 2017. Are female applicants disadvantaged in National Institutes of Health peer review? Combining algorithmic text mining and qualitative methods to detect evaluative differences in R01 reviewers' critiques. Journal of Women's Health, 26(5), pp.560-570.

  5. Alvarez, S.N.E., Jagsi, R., Abbuhl, S.B., Lee, C.J. and Myers, E.R., 2019. Promoting gender equity in grant making: what can a funder do?. The Lancet, 393(10171), pp.e9-e11.

  6. Catenaccio, E., Rochlin, J.M. and Simon, H.K., 2022. Addressing gender-based disparities in earning potential in academic medicine. JAMA network open, 5(2), pp.e220067-e220067.


  1. Squazzoni, F., Bravo, G., Grimaldo, F., Garcıa-Costa, D., Farjam, M. and Mehmani, B., 2020. No tickets for women in the COVID-19 race? A study on manuscript submissions and reviews in 2347 Elsevier journals during the pandemic. SSRN Electronic Journal.

  2. Reza, N., DeFilippis, E.M. and Michos, E.D., 2020. The cascading effects of COVID-19 on women in cardiology. Circulation.

  3. Spector, N.D. and Overholser, B., 2020. COVID-19 and the slide backward for women in academic medicine. JAMA Network Open, 3(9), pp.e2021061-e2021061.

  4. Narayana, S., Roy, B., Merriam, S., Yecies, E., Lee, R.S., Mitchell, J.L. and Gottlieb, A.S., 2020. Minding the gap: Organizational strategies to promote gender equity in academic medicine during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of general internal medicine, 35(12), pp.3681-3684.

  5. INEQUITIES, E., 2020. Collateral damage: how COVID-19 is adversely impacting women physicians. Journal of hospital medicine, 15(8), p.507.

  6. Brubaker, L., 2020. Women physicians and the COVID-19 pandemic. Jama, 324(9), pp.835-836.

  7. Andersen, J.P., Nielsen, M.W., Simone, N.L., Lewiss, R.E. and Jagsi, R., 2020. Meta-Research: COVID-19 medical papers have fewer women first authors than expected. Elife, 9, p.e58807.

  8. Ipe, T.S., Goel, R., Howes, L. and Bakhtary, S., 2021. The impact of COVID‐19 on academic productivity by female physicians and researchers in transfusion medicine. Transfusion.

  9. Krukowski, R.A., Jagsi, R. and Cardel, M.I., 2021. Academic productivity differences by gender and child age in science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine faculty during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Women's Health, 30(3), pp.341-347.

  10. Woitowich, N.C., Jain, S., Arora, V.M. and Joffe, H., 2021. COVID-19 threatens progress toward gender equity within academic medicine. Academic Medicine, 96(6), p.813.

  11. Gabster, B.P., van Daalen, K., Dhatt, R. and Barry, M., 2020. Challenges for the female academic during the COVID-19 pandemic. The Lancet, 395(10242), pp.1968-1970.

  12. Madsen, T.E., Dobiesz, V., Das, D., Sethuraman, K., Agrawal, P., Zeidan, A., Goldberg, E., Safdar, B. and Lall, M.D., 2020. Unique Risks and Solutions for Equitable Advancement during the Covid-19 Pandemic: Early Experience from Frontline Physicians in Academic Medicine. NEJM Catalyst Innovations in Care Delivery, 1(4).

  13. Cardel, M.I., Dean, N. and Montoya-Williams, D., 2020. Preventing a Secondary Epidemic of Lost Early Career Scientists. Effects of COVID-19 Pandemic on Women with Children. Annals of the American Thoracic Society, 17(11), pp.1366-1370.


  1. Westring A, Speck R, Sammel M, et al. A Culture Conducive to Women’s Academic Success: Development of a measure. Acad Med. 2012;87(11):1622-1631.

  2. Westring, A.F., Speck, R.M., Sammel, M.D., Scott, P., Conant, E.F., Tuton, L.W., Abbuhl, S.B. and Grisso, J.A., 2014. Culture matters: The pivotal role of culture for women’s careers in academic medicine. Academic Medicine, 89(4), p.658.


  1. Carr P, Arlene A, Friedman R, et al. Relation of family responsibilities and gender to the productivity and career satisfaction of medical faculty. Ann Intern Med. 1998;129:532-538.

  2. Jolly S, Griffith KA, DeCastro R, Stewart A, Ubel P, Jagsi R. Gender differences in time spent on parenting and domestic responsibilities by high achieving young physician-researchers. Ann Intern Med. 2014;16O(5):344-353.

  3. Jones R, Miller J, Vitous MA, et al. The Most Valuable Resource Is Time: Insights from a novel national program to improve retention of physician–scientists with caregiving responsibilities. Acad Med. 2019; 94:1746–1756.


  1. Carr P, Ash A, Friedman R, Szalacha L, Barnett R, Palepu A, Moskowitz M. Faculty perceptions of gender discrimination and sexual harassment in academic medicine. Ann Intern Med. 2000;132:889-896.

  2. Balmer, D.F., Courts, K.A., Dougherty, B., Tuton, L.W., Abbuhl, S. and Hirshfield, L.E., 2020. Applying the theory of gendered organizations to the lived experience of women with established careers in academic medicine. Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 32(5), pp.466-475. +Culture


  1. Crenshaw, K. (1991). Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence against Women of Color. Stanford Law Review, 43(6), 1241-1299. doi:10.2307/1229039

  2. Eckstrand, K L, Eliason J, St. Cloud T & Potter, J. (2016). The priority of intersectionality in academic medicine. Acad Med. 2016;91:904-907.

  3. Villanueva, I., Di Stefano, M., Gelles, L., Osoria, P. V., & Benson, S. (2019). A race re-imaged, intersectional approach to academic mentoring: Exploring the perspectives and responses of womxn in science and engineering research. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 59, 101786. +Mentoring

  4. Choo, H. Y., & Ferree, M. M. (2010). Practicing intersectionality in sociological research: A critical analysis of inclusions, interactions, and institutions in the study of inequalities*. Sociological Theory, 28(2), 129-149,245

  5. Shields, S.A., 2008. Gender: An intersectionality perspective. Sex roles, 59(5), pp.301-311.

  6. Pololi, L., Cooper, L.A. and Carr, P., 2010. Race, disadvantage and faculty experiences in academic medicine. Journal of general internal medicine, 25(12), pp.1363-1369.

  7. Powers, B.W., White, A.A., Oriol, N.E. and Jain, S.H., 2016. Race-conscious professionalism and African American representation in academic medicine. Academic Medicine, 91(7), pp.913-915.

  8. Kang, S.K. and Kaplan, S., 2019. Working toward gender diversity and inclusion in medicine: myths and solutions. The Lancet, 393(10171), pp.579-586.


  1. White FS, McDade S, Yamagata H, Morahan PS. Gender-related differences in the pathway to and characteristics of U.S. medical school deanships. Acad Med. 2012;87:1015-1023.

  2. Yu PT, Parsa PV, Hassanein O, Rogers SO, Chang DC. Minorities struggle to advance in academic medicine: a 12-y review of diversity at the highest levels of America's teaching institutions. Surgical Research. 2013;18(2):212-218

  3. Beeler, W.H., Mangurian, C. and Jagsi, R., 2019. Unplugging the pipeline-a call for term limits in academic medicine. The New England journal of medicine, 381(16), pp.1508-1511.


  1. Decastro R, Sambuco D, Ubel P, et al. Mentor Networks in Academic Medicine: Moving beyond a dyadic conception of mentoring for junior faculty researchers. Acad Med. 2013;88(4):488-496.

  2. DeCastro R, Griffith KA, Ubel PA, Stewart A, Jagsi R. Mentoring and the career satisfaction of male and female academic medical faculty. Acad Med. 2014;89(2):301-311.

  3. Travis E, Doty L, Helitzer D. Sponsorship: A path to the academic medicine c-suite for women faculty? Acad Med. 2013;88(10):1414-1417. +Leadership

  4. Gottlieb AS.  and Travis EL. Rationale and Models for Career Advancement Sponsorship in Academic Medicine.  Acad Med. 2018 Nov;93(11):1620-1623

  5. Ayyala, M.S., Skarupski, K., Bodurtha, J.N., González-Fernández, M., Ishii, L.E., Fivush, B. and Levine, R.B., 2019. Mentorship is not enough: exploring sponsorship and its role in career advancement in academic medicine. Academic Medicine, 94(1), pp.94-100.

  6. Levine, R.B., Ayyala, M.S., Skarupski, K.A., Bodurtha, J.N., Fernández, M.G., Ishii, L.E. and Fivush, B., 2021. “It’s a little different for men”—sponsorship and gender in academic medicine: a qualitative study. Journal of general internal medicine, 36(1), pp.1-8.


  1. Nonnemaker L. Women physicians in academic medicine new insights from cohort studies. NEJM. 2000;342(6): 399-405.

  2. Tesch B, Wood H, Helwig A, Butler Nattinger A. Promotion of women physicians in academic medicine glass ceiling or sticky floor? JAMA. 1995;273(13):1022-1025.

  3. Ash A, Carr P, Goldstein R, Friedman R. Compensation and advancement of women in academic medicine: is there equity? Ann Intern Med. 2004;141:205-212. + Compensation

  4. Jena A, Khullar D, Ho O, Olenski A, Blumenthal D. Sex differences in academic rank in US medical schools in 2014. JAMA. 2015; 314(11): 1149-1158.

  5. Carr PL, Friedman RH, Moskowitz MA, Kazis LE. Comparing the status of women and men in academic medicine. Ann Intern Med. 1993;119(9):908-913. + Compensation

  6. Reed DA, Enders F, Linder R, McClees M, Lindor KD. Gender differences in academic productivity and leadership appointments of physicians throughout academic careers. Acad Med. 2011;86(1):43-47. + Productivity

  7. Carr PL, Raj A, Kaplan SE, Terrin N, Breeze JL, Freund KM. Gender differences in academic medicine: retention, rank, and leadership comparisons from the National Faculty Survey. Acad Med 2018; 93: 1694–99. + Leadership

  8. Bellini, L.M., Kaplan, B., Fischel, J.E., Meltzer, C., Peterson, P. and Sonnino, R.E., 2020. The definition of faculty must evolve: a call to action. Academic Medicine, 95(10), pp.1515-1520.

  9. Speck, R.M., Sammel, M.D., Troxel, A.B., Cappola, A.R., Williams-Smith, C.T., Chittams, J., Scott, P., Tuton, L.W. and Abbuhl, S.B., 2012. Factors impacting the departure rates of female and male junior medical school faculty: evidence from a longitudinal analysis. Journal of Women's Health, 21(10), pp.1059-1065.

  10. Westring, A.F., Sammel, M.D., Speck, R.M., Tuton, L.W., Grisso, J.A. and Abbuhl, S.B., 2021. Career Trajectories of Women From Underrepresented Minority Groups at an Academic Medical Center. JAMA Network Open, 4(3), pp.e212723-e212723. +Intersectionality


  1. Holliday E, Griffith KA, DeCastro R, Stewart A, Ubel P, Jagsi R. Gender differences in resources and negotiation among highly motivated physician-scientists. J Gen Intern Med. 2015:30(4):401-407.

  2. Sege, R., Nykiel-Bub, L. and Selk, S., 2015. Sex differences in institutional support for junior biomedical researchers. Jama, 314(11), pp.1175-1177.

  3. Bellini L., Abbuhl S., Grisso JA., Lavizzo-Mourey, R. and Shea, J., 2001. Stresses and workplace resources for academic junior faculty: track and gender comparisons. Academic Medicine, 76(10), pp.S62-S64.



  1. Jagsi, R, Guancial E, Cooper Worobey C, et al. The “gender gap” in authorship of academic medical literature – a 35 year perspective. NEJM. 2006;355.3:281-287.

  2. Amrein, K., Langmann, A., Fahrleitner-Pammer, A., Pieber, T.R. and Zollner-Schwetz, I., 2011. Women underrepresented on editorial boards of 60 major medical journals. Gender medicine, 8(6), pp.378-387.

  3. Roberts, L.W., 2014. Where are the women editors?.

  4. Abbuhl, S., Bristol, M.N., Ashfaq, H., Scott, P., Tuton, L.W., Cappola, A.R. and Sonnad, S.S., 2010. Examining faculty awards for gender equity and evolving values. Journal of general internal medicine, 25(1), pp.57-60.


  1. Leslie SJ, Cimpian A, Meyer M, Freeland E. Expectations of brilliance underlie gender distributions across academic disciplines. Science. 2015;347(6219):262-265.



  1. Morahan, P.S., Voytko, M.L., Abbuhl, S., Means, L.J., Wara, D.W., Thorson, J. and Cotsonas, C.E., 2001. Ensuring the success of women faculty at AMCs: lessons learned from the National Centers of Excellence in Women's Health. Academic Medicine, 76(1), pp.19-31.

  2. Von Feldt, J.M., Bristol, M., Sonnad, S., Abbuhl, S., Scott, P. and McGowan, K.L., 2009. The brief CV review session: one component of a mosaic of mentorship for women in academic medicine. Journal of the National Medical Association, 101(9), pp.873-880. +Mentorship

  3. Sonnad, S.S., Goldsack, J. and McGowan, K.L., 2011. A writing group for female assistant professors. Journal of the National Medical Association, 103(9-10), pp.811-815.

  4. Pati, S., Reum, J., Conant, E., Tuton, L.W., Scott, M.P., Abbuhl, S. and Grisso, J.A., 2013. Tradition meets innovation: transforming academic medical culture at the University of Pennsylvania’s Perelman School of Medicine. Academic medicine: journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges, 88(4), p.461. +Culture

  5. Westring, A., McDonald, J.M., Carr, P. and Grisso, J.A., 2016. An integrated framework for gender equity in academic medicine. Academic Medicine, 91(8), pp.1041-1044.

  6. Grisso, J.A., Sammel, M.D., Rubenstein, A.H., Speck, R.M., Conant, E.F., Scott, P., Tuton, L.W., Westring, A.F., Friedman, S. and Abbuhl, S.B., 2017. A randomized controlled trial to improve the success of women assistant professors. Journal of Women's Health, 26(5), pp.571-579.

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